Italian adjectives for absolute beginners

Italian adjectives, also known as “aggettivi qualificativi,” generally agree in gender and number with the nouns they refer to. In Italian, all nouns have a gender (masculine and feminine) and can be singular or plural

This is a very simplified classification, but it will show most of what you need to learn as an absolute beginner.

When consulting an Italian dictionary, you will typically find adjectives listed in their singular masculine form. There are three categories of adjectives: those ending in -o, those ending in -e, and those ending in -a.

Italian adjectives decline in the feminine and plural forms as follows:

1. Adjectives ending in -o:

– “-o” for the masculine singular (e.g., Antonio è bello).
– “-a” for the feminine singular (e.g., Lucia è bella).
– “-i” for the masculine plural (e.g., Antonio e Claudio sono belli).
– “-e” for the feminine plural (e.g., Lucia e Giorgia sono belle).

2. Adjectives ending in -e:

– “-e” for both the singular forms (e.g., Dario è intelligente, Stefania è intelligente).
– “-i” for the plural forms (e.g., Dario e Francesco sono intelligenti, Claudia e Marta sono intelligenti). Adjectives ending in “-e” do not differentiate between masculine and feminine genders. The distinction is determined by the noun itself or the accompanying article.

3. Additionally, there is a small number of invariable Italian adjectives that do not change regardless of gender or number. Examples include “rosa” (pink): la macchina è rosa, i vestiti sono rosa. Other examples are pari (even), dispari (odd), blu (blue), lilla (lilac), and viola (violet).

4. Adjectives ending in -ista: this is just an example of adjectives ending with a particular suffix. there are others and you will learn with experience.

– Adjectives keep the same in the singular form (e.g., Mauro è altruista, Elisa è altruista).
– Adjectives change in the plural form:
– “-i” for the masculine plural (e.g., Giulio e Luigi sono ottimisti).
– “-e” for the feminine plural (e.g., Michela e Giorgia sono pessimiste).

In this case, there is only one form for both the masculine and feminine singular, but two different forms for the plural.

The position of an adjective in a sentence can also alter its meaning in some cases. For example:
– “Luigi è un amico vecchio” means “Luigi is an old friend.”
– “Luigi è un vecchio amico” means “Luigi is an old man.”

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Milanese, graduated in Italian literature a long time ago, I began teaching Italian online in Japan back in 2003. I usually spend winter in Tokyo and go back to Italy when the cherry blossoms shed their petals. I do not use social media.

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