This is the first blog, quiz and podcast of a series about the Congiuntivo, the Italian subjunctive mood. Solve the free quiz and listen to the premium podcast.
Ciao a tutti.
At the beginning of your Italian classes, you probably learned the verbs of the indicativo mood, such as the presente, passato prossimo or imperfetto. If you already did that, it’s time to learn the congiuntivo presente and express a wider range of ideas and situations in Italian.
We can simplify and say that whereas the indicativo is the mood of reality, the congiuntivo is the mood of possibility, uncertainty and opinion. I already wrote a blog explaining when you should use the congiuntivo over the indicativo. Down below, a recap. There are four tenses of the congiuntivo: presente (present), passato (perfect), imperfetto (imperfect), trapassato (pluperfect). Today we are going to study the presente of essere and avere.
In a few words…
Penso che Fabio sia un bravo ragazzo.
(instead of Penso
che Fabio è un bravo ragazzo).
I’m expressing my personal opinion about Fabio, not a fact, so I have to use the congiuntivo. I think now that Fabio is a good guy, so I have to use the presente tense.
The congiuntivo is necessary when we have two sentences connected (in Italian, due frasi congiunte —> congiuntivo) with the word che (that). Io penso is the main sentence, …che Fabio sia… is a dependent clause, meaning that it cannot make sense alone. The congiuntivo presente is the verb in the dependent clause when the main clause is placed in the presente (or futuro).
As a side note, if the subject does not change, the congiuntivo is not necessary So, if Fabio (he) thinks he‘s a good guy, we say: Fabio pensa di essere un bravo ragazzo. No need for a congiuntivo.
Let’s see the present tense of essere and avere.
We can use the congiuntivo with…
After impersonal expressions
After a superlativo relativo
After an indefinite adjective or pronoun
Introducing a concession (frasi concessive)
There are many other cases and expressions that trigger the use of the congiuntivo. Please follow the next blogs about this topic. Solve the examples in the quiz and win a Skype class.