Italian Direct and Indirect Pronouns – Pronomi combinati – QUIZ

We are going to study how combining Italian direct and indirect pronouns  will simplify the Italian language and complicate your life as a student

mime lome lame lime leme ne
tite lote late lite lete ne
cice loce lace lice lece ne
vive love lave live leve ne
gli (a loro)glieloglielaglieliglielegliene
sise lose lase lise lese ne

Let’s imagine a dialogue between two young friends. Mario wants to know if Luigi’s father can lend them his car.

  • Mario: “Hai chiesto a tuo padre se ci presta la sua macchina?” Did you ask your father if he will lend (to) us his car?
  • Luigi: “Glielo ho chiesto ma non ce la dà” I asked (it to) him, but won’t give it to us.

Luigi’s answer has all the elements for describing how Italian direct and indirect pronouns can be combined together and avoid redundant elements in a discussion. Let’s analyse what Luigi says.

I asked (it to) him GLIELO —> GLI + LO = GLI means A LUI, to his father; LO stands for asking your father the question

CE LA ➜ CE means A NOI , to us and LA takes place of “la macchina”, it, the car.

Looking at the grid, we can observe some changes:


when combined with direct pronouns become


  • Mi dai le forbici? ➜ ME LE dai? Can you give me the scissors? Can you give them to me?
  • Ti presento una mia amica ➜  TE LA presento  – Let me introduce her to you
  • Giulia si lava la faccia ➜  SE LA lava – Giulia washes it (the face) herself (reflexive SI)
  • La mamma ci ha detto di tornare a casa ➜ CE LO ha detto – She said it to us
  • Vi do dei biscotti ➜  VE LI do – I give them to you

An important note about GLI: it merges with direct pronouns forming complex compound pronouns.

  • Oggi compro a Maria delle scarpe nuove ➜ GLIELE compro – I buy them (feminine) to her

Please remember that Italian direct and indirect pronouns, with indicativo, congiuntivo and condizionale tenses come always BEFORE the verb and are separate:

  • Te lo dico io. Se non te lo dicessi io, te lo direbbe qualcun altro.

We already can see how Italian direct and indirect pronouns match with infinito, imperativo and gerundio. They always come after the verb and merge with it. The same happens when pronouns are combined together.

  • Non posso tenervelo segreto, devo dirvelo – I cant keep it secret to you. I have to say it to you 
  • Mario, devi dare 10 euro a Carlo. Daglieli
  • Non sapevo cosa fare. Parlandotene, mi sono tolto un peso

Now we can see some real examples and practice. I am going to put together some sentences with different tenses and moods. They are only in Italian. Make an effort and try to understand them.

  • Ci presteresti la tua macchina? Ce la presteresti?
  • Mia sorella mi ha regalato una cravatta. Me l’ha regalata.
  • Ci scambieremo i regali a Natale. Ce li scambieremo.
  • Da bambino, mia madre non mi dava mai la coca cola. Non me la dava mai.
  • Mio fratello si è comprato una macchina nuova. Se l’è comprata.
  • Mi fai assaggiare un po’ di risotto? Me ne fai assaggiare un po’?
  • Luca mi aveva detto di non ascoltarti. Me l’aveva detto.
  • Vi dico di non arrivare in ritardo. Ve lo dico.
  • Puoi mandare due pacchi a noi? Ce li puoi mandare?

Please note: when a verb begins with a vowel or a H, LO and LA turn into L’.

  • Giulia si è tolta il maglione. = Se l‘è tolto.
  • Mia sorella mi ha cucinato il pesce. = Me l’ha cucinato.

Please remember that Italians use pronouns very often and learning them correctly will help you to speak fluently. Please take some time for completing the quiz.

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Italian Direct and Indirect Pronouns

Pronomi combinati



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CI and NE – two particular Italian words

CI and NE are two common Italian particles. Versatile, very important and sometimes confusing

Italians love to use pronouns, sometimes combined together, sometimes merged with verbs. It’s convenient for us, as the Italian language is greatly simplified by the use of pronouns.

For students, however, it can be rather confusing. “Ci and “Ne” are usually studied together as examples of flexible, useful “pronominal particles”, particelle pronominali and particelle avverbiali. We’ll call them pronouns and adverbs to make it simple.

This is a very basic post introducing CI and NE and their use in spoken Italian.

(continues …)

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CI and NE – two particular Italian words



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Interiezioni and intercalari, the “parsley” of the Italian language

È come il prezzemolo! Italian intercalari

He’s like parsley! That’s what Italians say of someone or something you see everywhere, like parsley on Italian dishes. Intercalari and interiezioni are elements of the Italian spoken language that people sprinkle all over, to emphasize what they want to say.

Just like parsley, intercalari and interiezioni are really everywhere in the Italian spoken language. But, again, just like parsley, when there are too many, they can spoil the taste of our beautiful language.

Intercalari are fragments, specific words used outside the canonical structure of a sentence. They can give an elegant pace to a speech but they also could be be very annoying, a sort of linguistic nervous tic.

Allora, appunto, insomma, diciamo, dai, vabè (a Milano), vabbè (a Roma), vabbuò (a Napoli), così, ecco, cioè, è vero, non so, come dire, voglio dire, ti dico, per così dire, diciamo, vedi, guarda, senti, praticamente, tipo, un attimino and many others, are classic intercalari.

Some of them are used as ice-breakers to start a sentence (allora, dunque, senti, guarda, vedi, praticamente …) others as a sort of request, a confirmation that you are listening to what I’m saying… (cioè, allora, no?, niente, proprio, capito) to which you are supposed to nod, like when someone in English says ” you know” every 10 words.

Here below, a fragment of an Italian cult comedy movie called “Un sacco bello”: a debate between a desperate father, a hippie son with his girlfriend living in a community in Tuscany, and a priest. They have a strong Roman accent and speak quite fast. Don’t worry, just listen.

Try to count the cioè, allora, proprio, no? niente, and others you may catch.

That was quite extreme, but some people use intercalari a bit too much.

Finally the interiezioni are a sort of intercalari, but usually shorter expressions of different emotions. Depending on the intonation and intensity, the same sound can have different meanings, followed by a question mark or an exclamation. I can’t include all the feelings here but I will write some emotions in Italian. Google them and find their meaning.

  • Ah: sorpresa, desiderio, rabbia, dubbio
  • Eh: sorpresa, indignazione, approvazione, rabbia
  • Oh: gioia, sorpresa, ammirazione
  • Boh: sorpresa, smarrimento
  • Mah: dubbio
  • Toh; sorpresa,

Alla prossima

Italian articoli partitivi, “some” in Italian – QUIZ

Articoli partitivi are used to indicate a part, a number out of a total. Some…

This is a very short and simple article for beginners. I’m going to introduce a simple way for you to indicate a quantity, pretty much equivalent the English “some”.

The Italian articoli partitivi are obtained by adding the preposition di (of) to the articoli determinativi:

di + …

il —> del

lo —> dello

la —> della

i —> dei

gli —> degli

le —> delle

l’ —> dell’

Il vino: vorrei del vino

Lo zucchero: ho comprato dello zucchero

La carne: mangerei della carne

I fiori: le ho regalato dei fiori

Gli amici: ho invitato degli amici

Le uova: Vai a comprare delle uova

L’aglio: Aggiungi dell’aglio al sugo

Singular Articoli Partitivi are used in combination with uncountable nouns, in Italian nomi di massa), words such as: foods – acqua, vino, formaggio, verdura, carne – etc ; materials: legno, carta etc.

In spoken Italian, instead of using the articoli partitivi, often times we can use “un po’ di”, literally “a little of” (quantity).

So for example, instead of saying, “ho mangiato dei cioccolatini” I can simply say “ho mangiato un po’ di cioccolatini”.

Here’s a simple quiz for you. Please answer anche check your score against the average.

Alla prossima


Avverbi, Italian adverbs – Complete guide, Audio examples, Quiz

Italian adverbs are called avverbi

The avverbio, derived from the Latin “ad verbum”, next to the verb, is an invariable part of speech that is positioned alongside the verb to provide specific meaning. Similar to how adjectives modify nouns, the traditional function of adverbs is to add information to the verb and specify the meaning. This analogy becomes evident here:

  • La macchina di Mario è veloce. (aggettivo)
  • Mario guida velocemente. (avverbio)

We use Italian adverbs to add meaning to verbs, adjectives or other parts of a sentence.

According to their structure, we can talk about:

  • Avverbi semplici: these adverbs are “primitive”, not generated from other words. Mai, forse, bene, male. etc.
  • Avverbi composti: resulting from combination of words. Da+per+tutto = dappertutto (every + where = everywhere).
  • Avverbi derivati: coming form other words, usually adjectives, with the addition of the suffix – mente (in English -ly). Chiaro (clear) -> chiaramente (clearly).

The avverbi derivati are commonly formed by adding the suffix -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.

For example: lento —> lenta + mente (slowly), rapidamente (quickly), certamente (certainly) etcetera.

If the adjective ends in -le or -re, the -e is dropped before attaching -mente, as observed in the adverbs:

Facile —> facil + mente —> facilmente (easily), gentilmente (kindly), particolarmente (particularly).

Similarly, other adverbs conforming to these patterns include dolcemente (sweetly), tranquillamente (calmly), chiaramente (clearly), pazientemente (patiently), sicuramente (surely), notevolmente (remarkably) etcetera.

We can classify the Italian avverbi in 6 main groups:

(continues …)

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Avverbi, Italian adverbs

Complete guide, Audio examples, Quiz


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The Italian Gerundio – Basic Review and Quiz

Gerundio is an Italian “indefinite” mood

This is a very basic post about the Italian Gerund. If your level is intermediate to advanced, you may want to have a look at this post in Italian.

Also, today we are NOT going through the progressive use of the gerundio (to be doing something or stare + gerundio) which is a particular structure of the Italian gerund.

Ok, we can start.

The gerundio has two tenses: semplice (simple) and composto (compound).

Gerundio Semplice (Presente)


The Gerundio semplice is a simple tense, without conjugations, it does not change and can be applied to all the personal pronouns expressed by the main clause. There is a relevant difference between the English gerund and the Italian gerundio, so be careful.

Gerundio, together with Infinito and Participio, is a mood, a form of a verb that we use for building a so called “frase subordinata implicita”:

Subordinata: the gerundio is always in a dependent clause, near to a main clause. It can’t live by itself, it does not make complete sense when used alone;  

Implicita: the Italian gerundio has no conjugations, no subject. It just refers to the situation and subject described in the main clause.

The most common use of the gerundio is defined as temporale, describing simultaneous or consecutive events.

  • Mangio guardando la televisione.
  • Mangerete guardando la televisione.
  • Mangiavamo guardando la televisione.

The gerundio acts together with the main clause. It can be set in the present, in the future or in the past and it takes the subject of the main clause. The Gerundio Semplice is often called Gerundio Presente, but this label can be misleading, since the gerundio just refers to the main clause. It’s not a present tense.

The gerundio semplice helps to extend the meaning of a stronger independent sentence (main clause) following four distinct functions (five including the above mentioned gerundio temporale):

1. Gerundio modale: it desctibes HOW something is achieved in the main clause. For example:

  • Luigi studia l’inglese guardando i film in tivù.
  • Stefano legge un libro mettendo gli occhiali.
  • Carla ha percorso dieci chilometri camminando.

2. Gerundio causale describes WHY, the cause of an action happening in the main clause. For example:

  • Avendo pochi soldi non ho comprato casa.
  • Essendo allergico ai funghi Sergio non ha mangiato il risotto.
  • Non amando il teatro, ho regalato i miei biglietti a Giovanna.

3. Gerundio ipotetico: it represents something that could happen and satisfy the result expressed by the main clause. For example:

  • Rinunciando alle vacanze potrei risparmiare dei soldi.
  • Arriveresti in ritardo perdendo questo treno.
  • Mangiando meno pane perderai peso.

4. Gerundio concessivo: it says despite what circumstances we have obtain the opposite result expressed in the main clause. For example:

  • Pur mangiando poco, Clara non dimagrisce.
  • Pur lavorando molto non riesco a risparmiare.
  • Pur essendo brutta, Giada piace a tanti uomini

Please note that pur or pure in this case means “despite, although, even though…”.

Gerundio Composto (Passato)


The Gerundio composto is a compound tense, with the gerundio of essere or avere = essendo or avendo and the participio passato (…ato, …uto, …ito) of a verb.

The gerundio composto describes pre-existing conditions when the main clause takes place. For example:

  • Avendo finito di mangiare, ho già cominciato a lavare i piatti.
  • Essendo tornato prima dal lavoro, andrò al supermercato.

This is the main use of the gerundio composto, defined asd Temporale. In both cases, the gerundio exists before the event described in the main clause.

As it happens with the gerundio semplice, we can define other four functions of gerundio composto. It’s worth having a second look.

1. Gerundio Modale

  • Luigi ha imparato l’inglese  avendo guardato dei film in tivù.
  • Stefano ha finito di leggere il libro  avendo indossato sempre gli occhiali.
  • Carla è arrivata fin qui avendo camminato.

In the modale type, the same concept can often be achieved using the gerundio semplice.

2. Gerundio Causale

  • Avendo avuto pochi soldi non ho comprato casa.
  • Essendo stato malato non ho potuto studiare.
  • Non avendo capito le tue istruzioni, non ho lavorato bene.

In this case, the cause is clearly set before the consequence.

3. Gerundio Ipotetico

  • Avendo letto i giornali avrei conosciuto le notizie di ieri.
  • Avendo incontrato Luigi avrei potuto parlargli.
  • Avendo ascoltato quella canzone ti avrei detto se mi piace o no.

This is a good substitute of the congiuntivo. Very handy.

4. Gerundio Concessivo

  • Pur avendo mangiato poco, Clara non è dimagrita.
  • Pur avendo lavorato molto non riesco a risparmiare.
  • Pur essendo stato povero, Mario ora è molto ricco.

Although, despite… = pur + gerundio

Lastly, but very important, the gerundio can merge with pronouns (direct, indirect, reflexive, ci & ne) in a single word:

  • Mangiando molto pane, sono ingrassato —> mangiandone molto…
  • Conoscendo Mario, non arriverà in orario —> conoscendolo

More examples in the quiz!

So, why is the gerundio so important? Look at the sentences:

  • Arrivando in orario, avresti visto l’inizio del film.
  • Se fossi arrivata in orario, avresti visto l’inizio del film.

The first sentence with the Gerundio expresses the same concept of the second but it’s much easier. We avoid conjugations, the use of the same subject, the use of the congiuntivo. In the first one, the subject is implicit (implicito), in the second it is explicit (esplicito) and we need to change the verb and genders where needed.

The Gerund is a very useful tool that Italians use to simplify sentences. You should learn it and use it to achieve the same goal.

Thanks for reading. Please solve the quiz.

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The Italian Gerundio

Basic Quiz


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Giovanni Bellini – Giovane donna nuda allo specchio – 1515 ca

Words and Letters: Italian sounds – Audio

Basic Italian sounds

There are some few basic rules for pronouncing correctly Italian sounds. Italian is less complicated than other common European languages. That’s because Italian is a literary language, heavily influenced by classic Latin and syllables have just one sound.

The Italian alphabet has just 21 letters, since j, k, w, x, and y are used only in foreign words recently adopted in the Italian vocabulary, like jeans, wifi, baby sitter, marketing, etc. Italian vowels are A E I O U. Listen to their sound:



The letter H is quite unique, since generally it’s not pronounced in the spoken language, but it is fundamental for creating some sounds. For example, “I have” in Italian is “io ho”, where “ho” is not pronounced like “holiday”, but like “Oregon”. GElato and spaGHEtti are simple and effective examples of how the letter H changes the sounds of syllables. Listen how a native speaker says these words correctly.


Another example where H creates sounds is CHI, like CHItarra, guitar, where we also have a double R. Double consonants give a stronger tone to the sound. Please listen and repeat.


Let’s find out some tricky words and Italian sounds you wouldn’t guess just reading them.

We are sure you would like to have some fantastic food in Italy. If you want to order some fish, you should call it pesce. SCE in italian is pronounced like shame. Two or more fish are pesci and SCI is pronounced like she in English. Listen and repeat.


The last tip of today about tricky Italian sounds is the hybrid sound GLI, where G and L are smoothly blended together. For example, the Italian word for family is famiglia. Listen carefully and catch the sound GLI.


Let’s wrap up today’s learnings. Please try to read and pronounce correctly the following syllables and then listen to the correct sound to adjust. Finally, solve the simple quiz below.






Thanks for listening.

Italian articles – Basic Rules & Quiz

Italian articles are of 2 types: determinativi (definite) and indeterminativi (indefinite)

All Italian articles agree in gender and number with a noun. There are 2 genders in the Italian language: maschile (masculine) and femminile (feminine) and they can be singular or plural.

  • The articolo determinativo, in Italian, is used to introduce nouns which refer to specific items. They are equivalent to the English “the“.
  • Same for the articolo indeterminativo, equivalent to the English “a” referring generically to an object.

Depending on the gender and number of the object they describe, articles change.

For example, we can say, La casa è grande, the house is big, using the article LA, singular feminine, because the noun casa is singular feminine. We are clearly referring to a specific house, because LA is an articolo determinativo. The house.

If we say, Vorrei una casa grande, I’d like a big house, we use the article UNA, singular feminine. In this case we need to use UNA, articolo indeterminativo, just “a” house.

Let’s see them all in detail.

Articoli determinativi

Articoli determinativi maschili – Masculine Definite Articles

il and its plural i are the most used

  • il cane, i cani

Lo, and its plural Gli are exceptions, used in the following cases: masculine nouns beginning with: a vowel, s + consonantz, gnpspn.

  • L’amico, Gli amici
  • Lo studente, Gli studenti
  • Lo zaino, Gli zaini
  • Lo gnocco, Gli gnocchi
  • Lo psichiatra, Gli psichiatri
  • Lo pneumatico, Gli pneumatici

The first case, masculine noun beginning with a vowel, is by far the most common case where we need Lo (L’) and Gli. S + consonant and Z are pretty common, the last three are rare, so don’t worry too much.

A classic example is lo spazio, gli spazi. In case of a vowel we use L’amico

Articoli determinativi femminili – Feminine Definite Articles

Feminine articles, are less complicated. We have la singolare and le plurale.

  • La casa, Le case

In case of a noun beginning with a vowel we use L’ because of the smoother sound.

  • L’amica, Le amiche

Articoli indeterminativi

Articolo indeterminativo maschile UN, is by far the most used, for all masculine nouns beginning with a vowel or a consonant

  • Un amico
  • Un cane

Articolo indeterminativo maschile UNO, not used together with nouns beginning with a vowel (uno amico —> un amico). Other that that, it matches the cases valid with “Lo”: s + consonantz, gnpspn:

  • Uno studente
  • Uno zaino
  • Uno gnocco
  • Uno psichiatra
  • Uno pneumatico

Articolo indeterminativo femminile UNA, is used for all feminine nouns, except when they begin with a vowel, in which case we use the truncated form UN’. So, we can say una casa, but un’amica , a female friend:

  • Una casa
  • Un’amica

Please take your time, solve the quiz below and repeat the correct sounds. A presto.


Trapassato Prossimo, the “past of the past” – Quiz

trapassato prossimo

The Italian Trapassato Prossimo describes “the past of other past actions”

If we have two or more actions in the past, the Trapassato Prossimo describes the oldest. We usually need the Trapassato Prossimo when there’s a change, a discontinuity in the past. We’ll see all the details with some examples and a quiz.

This is a very basic post for beginners. If your level is intermediate to advanced, please read this other lesson in Italian.

The Trapassato (Pluperfect in English) is the combination of the Imperfetto of essere or avere and the past participle, the Italian Participio Passato. See the table.

essere avere
io ero andato/a avevo comprato
tu eri andato/a avevi comprato
lui / lei era andato/a aveva comprato
noi eravamo andati/e avevamo comprato
voi eravate andati/e avevate comprato
loro erano andati/e avevano comprato

In most cases, the Trapassato Prossimo is used in combination with another past tense with or without a given time frame (e.g. ieri, la settimama scorsa, un’ora fa) with or without adverbs (mentre etc…). For example:

  • Passato Prossimo Avevo studiato ma non ho superato gli esami universitari
  • Imperfetto, Avevo studiato ma non superavo gli esami universitari
  • Passato Remoto. Avevo studiato (ebbi studiato) ma non superai gli esami universitari

First I (had) studied, then I didn’t pass the test. The Trapassato Prossimo works fine with other past tenses, including the Passato Prossimo, Imperfetto, Passato Remoto or even another Trapassato Prossimo if the actions are clearly in the right sequence. If time references are absent, the Trapassato helps to give us an idea of what happened (or did not happen) in the first place.

With the Passato Remoto, third example, we can use the Trapassato Remoto (ebbi studiato), but it’s very rare in spoken Italian.

Look at the following sentences.

  • Non sono mai stato a Sorrento.
  • Non ero mai stato a Sorrento.

The meaning of these two sentences is totally different. In the first sentence I’ve never been to Sorrento. In the second I am saying that it was the first time for me in Sorrento, I “had never been” there before. So I was there eventually.

In other words, the other past event or circumstance is implied in the sentence.

  • Non avevo mai incontrato Marco (but eventually I did).

Have a look at those examples. We clearly need the Trapassato Prossimo to emphasise the change.

  • Ho chiesto al professore di ripetere perché non avevo capito.
  • Ti avevo detto di non guidare la mia macchina.
  • Era rimasto a casa per più di un mese.
  • Luigi aveva paura perché non aveva mai preso l’aereo.
  • Non avevamo mai visto un tramonto così intenso.

So, for example, Luigi was scared because he “had never taken” a plane before. It means that eventually he did.

Sometimes however, the Trapassato Prossimo is just a way to give more depth to a past event. In theory, we could omit it and use the Passato Prossimo or Remoto instead. For example:

  • Ci eravamo divertiti tanto l’anno scorso in vacanza.
  • Mi ricordo di Laura. L’avevo conosciuta ai tempi dell’università.
  • Avevamo preso un taxi per tornare perché non c’erano più treni.
  • Ti ricordi dove avevi comprato il tuo telefono?
  • Ha preso una multa perché era passato con il rosso.

For example, in the last sentence the use of the trapassato prossimo is correct because he first ignored the red lights and then he got a ticket. However, the sequence of the events is so clear that a simple Passato Prossimo would be enough clear.

  • Ha preso una multa perché è passato con il rosso.

Please try the quiz.


Aggettivi possessivi, Italian possessive adjectives – Basic guide and quiz

The Italian Aggettivi Possessivi, are also pronouns –> Pronomi Possessivi

Aggettivi Possessivi indicate the ownership, or close relationship, between the owner and the object they possess. For example, my brother is mio fratelloand my sister is mia sorella. Their termination reflects exactly the gender and number of the object.


Singolare Maschile

il mio amico

il tuo amico

il suo amico

il nostro amico

il vostro amico

il loro amico

Singolare Femminile

la mia amica

la tua amica

la sua amica

la nostra amica

la vostra amica

la loro amica

Plurale Maschile

i miei amici

i tuoi amici

i suoi amici

i nostri amici

i vostri amici

i loro amici

Plurale Femminile

le mie amiche

le tue amiche

le sue amiche

le nostre amiche

le vostre amiche

le loro amiche

Let’s take a better look at Aggettivi and Pronomi Possessivi with the sentence below:

  • La mia casa è più grande della tuaMy house is bigger than yours.

The first thing we have to notice is the object casa, singular feminine noun.

  • The aggettivo possessivo mia agrees with gender and number with the noun casa.
  • As opposed to English, aggettivi possessivi retain the article, in this case La, which also agrees with casa. In English we can say The house or My house, not “the my house”. In Italian, with some important exceptions, there’s always an article.
  • La mia casa and la tua (casa): the object casa in this comparison is the same, it is not necessary to say it again, hence … della tua (casa), where tua becomes a pronoun as yours in English.

In Italian mio aggettivo possessivo is the same mio pronome possessivo. It does not change. In English you have my and mine and so on. In Italian we don’t.

All the aggettivi possessivi agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to, except loro, which never changes.

In Italian there are no his or her based on he or she. For example:

  • Ho incontrato Giorgio e sua mamma
  • Ho incontrato Stefania e sua mamma

Sua refers to the mother, not to Giorgio (male) or Stefania (female).

We mentioned that in pretty much all the sentences there is a pattern

  • la + mia + casa
  • article + aggettivo possessivo + noun

The rule is overridden when the noun is of a family relative, only singular:

  • mio fratello, tua sorella, suo nonno, mia nonna, sua mamma, tuo papà, mia cugina


  • i miei fratelli, i suoi nonni, i tuoi genitori, i loro cugini.

In case of Loro (their / theirs) we keep the article: —> La loro madre.

I hope this explanation of the Italian aggettivi possessivi helped you.

Please take some time to solve the quiz below about aggettivi possessivi. Feel free to book a Zoom trial class. Ciao.


Pietro Scoppetta – Ritratto dell’artista Adele Carrà – 1920

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